Giovanni PapiniGiovanni Papini (9 January 18818 July 1956) was an Italian journalist, essayist, novelist, short story writer, poet, literary critic, and philosopher. Among the founders of the journals Leonardo (1903) and Lacerba (1913), he conceived literature as an "action" and gave his writings an oratory and irreverent tone. Though self-educated, he was considered influential iconoclastic editor and writer, leading in Italian futurism, he participated in the early literary movements of youth. A living part of the literary, foreign philosophical and political movements, such as the French intuitionism of Bergson and the Anglo-American pragmatism of Peirce and James, which at the beginning of the twentieth century promoted the aging of Italian culture and life from Florence, in the name of an individualistic and dreamy conception of life and art, and a spokesman in Roman Catholic religious belief. Papini's literary success began with his known works include ''Il Crepuscolo dei Filosofi'' ("The Twilight of the Philosophers"), published in 1906, and his 1913 publication of his auto-biographical novel ''Un Uomo Finito'' ("A finished man").
Papini was born into a lower-middle-class family in Florence, the capital of Tuscany. Controversial and discussed intellectual, admired for his writing style, he was a scholar of philosophy, religion, literary critic and heated polemicist, narrator and poet, popularizer of pragmatism and historical avant-gardes such as futurism and post-decadentism. He went from one position to another on the fronts, always dissatisfied and uneasy, he converted from the anti-clericalism and atheism that turned catholicism on; went from cursing and convinced interventionism (before 1915) to aversion to war. In the 1930s, after moving from individualism to conservatism, he finally joined fascism, while maintaining an aversion to nazism.
Almost removed from the great literature after its disappearance mainly due to its ideological choices, it was later appreciated and re-evaluated; in 1975, the Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges called him an "undeservedly forgotten" author. Provided by Wikipedia
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